Wood Stove 2020 – Development of next generation and clean wood stoves
Small-scale biomass combustion is one of the most relevant bioenergy applications today. Driven by EU-wide and national measures to promote the utilisation of biomass for energy production, the European market for biomass based residential heating systems is expected to substantially increase by about 130 % until 2020 (based on 2009). Regarding the installed units stoves show the highest and steadily increasing numbers in Europe. According to market studies a potential for an annual installation of almost 2,200,000 stoves (logwood and pellet stoves) is forecasted for Europe in 2020.
This additional potential for renewable energy production will of course contribute to a reduction of the EU's greenhouse gas emissions, however, it is also well known that among the different residential biomass combustion technologies logwood stoves show the highest CO, OGC and fine particulate matter (PM) emissions. But at the same time it had also been shown in a previous project (ERA-NET FutureBioTec in 2009) that by application of advanced combustion concepts and modern design tools significant emission reductions can be achieved, even compared with state-of-the-art stoves (60 % for CO, 85 % for OGC and 55 % regarding PM). The Stove2020-project directly ties in with the these results and aims at the development of innovative measures and technologies in order to further reduce emissions from wood stoves, to increase their thermal efficiency and to expand their field of application from solely single room heating to central heating. The latter could especially be of relevance for future applications in low energy buildings.
The project aims at a comprehensive improvement of log wood stoves. Regarding emissions and the fuel consumption the technologies used shall be optimized considerably. Thereby the project focus lies not only on the furnace technology itself, but rather on the whole system. This means also technical improvements regarding automatic combustion air control, heat storage, chimney draught control and minimization of user influence and standing losses. As a result there should be new approaches for more effective system integration of highly efficient and clean log wood stoves.
With the new technologies developed in the project an emission reduction between 50 and 80 % and an increase of the efficiencies in a range above 90 % is targeted. If in future all newly installed wood stoves in Europe would be equipped with these new technologies, a PM emission reduction of 60–90 % could be achieved.
Project content and work plan
Automated process control for stoves
- Identification of sensors for relevant flue gas components and possible other parameters available or close to market introduction, and preliminary assessment of their applicability for process control in stoves
- Evaluation of the feasibility of selected sensors for process control in stoves in terms of measured parameters, signal characteristics, resistance to thermal, mechanical and chemical stresses etc.
- Elaboration, implementation and validation of control algorithms for integrated systems adapted to three advanced wood stoves
- Development, implementation and validation of a universal retrofit control system
Measures for emission reduction
- Evaluation of the potential of optimized stove geometries and novel air staging strategies
- Development of a concept for catalyst integration for effective emission reduction from stoves
- Evaluation of the PM reduction potential of ceramic filter inserts in practise
Increasing efficiency and applicability
- Development and integration of a heat storage system based on phase change materials (PCM)
- Evaluation of novel concepts for prevention of standing losses for increased system efficiency
- Evaluation of advanced draft stabilisation concepts for increased efficiency
Testing and evaluation of the technologies developed
- Provision of common test rules by defining sound and reproducible methods and test plans
- Quantifying the effects of the improved stoves and system components regarding emission reduction and efficiency increase
Elaboration and dissemination of guidelines for the design of future low emission stoves and for the retrofit of old stoves
- Provision of a user friendly compendium for wood stove systems developers or promoters which compiles all recommendations derived from the technological achievements
- Dissemination of the project results and the achievable improvements
Final project workshop
Project coordination: Technology and Support Centre (TFZ), Straubing (Germany)
German funding: Priority area of the programme "Renewable raw materials" of the Federal Ministry of Food and Agriculture (BMEL), allocation by the Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e. V.
Projectpartners: RISE – Research Institutes of Sweden (Sweden), BIOS – BIOS Bioenergiesysteme GmbH (Austria), Kutzner+Weber GmbH (Germany), RIKA Innovative Ofentechnik GmbH (Austria), Nibe AB (Sweden), DTU – Technical University of Denmark (Denmark), HWAM (Denmark)